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रोखठोक महाराष्ट्र न्युज फ्लॅश…. वाचन उपक्रम-माझी शाळा लेखिका प्रा.अमिता कदम यांच्या लेख खास वाचकांसाठी

पुणे (प्रतिनिधी)
शाळा आणि विद्यार्थी यांचा खूप जवळचा संबंध आहे.प्रत्येक विद्यार्थ्यांला वाचता आणि लिहिता यावे हा शाळेचा मुख्य उद्देश असतो. त्यासाठी शाळेमार्फत वेगवेगळे उपक्रम राबवले जातात, त्यापैकी ‘वाचन प्रकल्प’ हा महत्त्वाचा उपक्रम आहे.
शैक्षणिक उपक्रमामध्ये मागे पडणाऱ्या विद्यार्थ्यांना इतर विद्यार्थ्यांच्या बरोबरीने आणण्यासाठी वाचन प्रकल्प हा उपक्रम महत्त्वपूर्ण आहे. राज्यातील सर्व सरकारी शाळेमध्ये लेखन आणि वाचन हा प्रकल्प राबविण्यात येत आहे.
पुण्यातील राज्य शैक्षणिक संशोधन आणि प्रशिक्षण परिषदेच्या (एससीईआरटी) माध्यमातून राबविण्यात येत असलेल्या या प्रकल्पात संपूर्ण राज्यातील ६६ हजार शाळा सहभागी झाल्या.
पण हा उपक्रम राबविण्याआधी शिक्षकांना ही विशेष प्रशिक्षण व अध्यापन अध्यापक साहित्य पुरवणे आवश्यक आहे. विद्यार्थ्यांना अक्षर ओळखीपासून ते चांगल्या दर्जाचे लेख वाचणे. जमल्यास तसा लिहिण्याचा प्रयत्न करणे या सर्व गोष्टी आवश्यक आहे,हे काम शिक्षकांनी करावे
या उपक्रमात ज्या विद्यार्थ्यांना लिहिता आणि वाचता येत नाही असा विद्यार्थ्यांची सुरवातीला यादी तयार करणे. त्यानंतर त्या विद्यार्थ्यांना लेखन आणि वाचन न येण्याची कारणे शोधून काढणे. काही वेळा अशिक्षित आईवडील, कौटुंबिक वातावरण हे घटक जबाबदार असतात. तर काही वेळा विद्यार्थ्यांना अभ्यासात आवड नसणे,अन्य गोष्टीत अधिक लक्ष देणे,वाईट संगत ही कारणे सुद्धा असतात. अशावेळी नेमके कोणते कारण हे शोधून काढून उपाययोजना करणे आवश्यक आहे.
पुढील प्रमाणे उपाययोजना करणे आवश्यक आहे
१) प्रकट वाचनाचा व्हिडीओ तयार करणे आणि विद्यार्थ्यांना ऐकवणे.
२) शिक्षकांनी आधी स्पष्ट उच्चारात व विद्यार्थ्यांना समजले अशाच पदधतीने मोठयाने प्रकट वाचन करणे.
३) त्यानंतर विद्यार्थ्यांना वाचन करण्यास सांगणे.
४)विविध शब्दपटटी तयार करणे व विद्यार्थ्यांना वाचण्यास देणे.
५) डिजिटल पुस्तक तयार करणे.
६)वाचन स्पर्धा आयोजित करून विद्यार्थ्यांना बक्षीस देऊन त्याचा उत्साह वाढविणे.
७)वक्तृत्व स्पर्धा आयोजित करणे आणि विद्यार्थ्यांना सहभागी होण्यास प्रोत्साहन देणे.
या अशा प्रकारच्या उपाययोजना शाळा आणि शिक्षकांनी केल्या तर नक्कीच विद्यार्थ्यांना वाचता येईल.परंतु आपण हे करत बसलो तर आपण शिकवणार कधी ,आपले धडे कधी पूर्ण होणार असे अनेक प्रश्न शिक्षकांना पडणे साहजिकच आहे कारण ४० मिनिटांच्या तासात या गोष्टी करणे अशक्य आहे. परंतु विद्यार्थ्यांच्या भवितव्यासाठी हे करणे आवश्यक आहे.

पण त्याच बरोबर माध्यमिक स्तरावरील विद्यार्थ्यांना पाठयपुस्तकाबरोबर अवांतर वाचनाची गोडी कशी निर्माण होईल यासाठी शिक्षकांनी प्रयत्न केले पाहिजे.अवांतर वाचनासाठी प्रामुख्याने वूत्तपत्र वाचणे आणि रोजच्या घडामोडी माहिती असणे आवश्यक आहे.त्यामुळे त्याच्या ज्ञानात अजून भर पडेल.पाक्षिके, मासिके, वार्षिक इ.नियतकालिके आठवड्यातून एकदा तरी वाचावी. या सगळयाची माहिती विद्यार्थ्यांना शिक्षकांनी देणे आवश्यक आहे.
वर्गातील प्रत्येक विद्यार्थी समान बुद्धिमतेचा नसतो.काही विद्यार्थ्यांना थोडेफार वाचता येते. परंतु आपण वाचताना चुकलो तर आपल्याला वर्गातील मुले हसतील ही भावना विद्यार्थ्यांच्या मनात निर्माण झाली तर अशावेळी विद्यार्थी घाबरतो आणि
वाचत नाही. अशावेळी या अशा विद्यार्थ्यांच्या मनातील न्यूनगंड दूर करुन आत्मविश्वास आधी निर्माण करणे आवश्यक आहे.
विद्यार्थ्यांसाठी हा उपक्रम राबविण्याआधी त्याच्यात श्रवण कौशल्य आत्मसात करणे आवश्यक आहे. कोणतीही भाषा अवगत होण्यासाठी सर्वप्रथम ती ऐकणे आवश्यक आहे. श्रवण हे भाषा शिकण्यासाठी प्राथमिक स्वरूपाचे क्षेत्र आहे. ऐकल्याशिवाय कोणतीही भाषा येत नाही. श्रवण हा भाषिक विकासाचा पाया मानला जातो.
एकवेळ शाळेचा १००% निकाल लागला नाही तरी चालेल पण प्रत्येक विद्यार्थ्यांला लिहिता आणि वाचता येणे आवश्यक आहे. तेव्हाच खऱ्या अर्थाने
शाळेला यश प्राप्त होईल.
विद्यार्थी आपल्या देशाचे भविष्य आहे. त्यामुळे त्याचा सर्वागीण विकास करणे हे प्रत्येक शाळेचे आणि शिक्षकांचे कर्तव्य आहे आणि यात मुख्याध्यापकाची भूमिका महत्त्वाची आहे. कारण तो विद्यार्थी आणि शिक्षकांमधील महत्त्वपूर्ण दुवा आहे.
आता या लाँकडाऊनच्या काळात आँनलाईन शिक्षण पद्धतीवर भर दिला गेला. पण सगळयांना ते ज्ञान अवगत नाही. आज डिजिटल क्रांती आली आहे. बोलके व्हिडीओ आणि किल्प पुस्तकांच्या माध्यमातून विद्यार्थ्यांना शिकवणे आवश्यक आहे. डिजिटल क्रांतीच्या माध्यमातून वाचन क्रिया पद्धत आत्मसात करता येईल. जर एखाद्या १० वीच्या विद्यार्थ्यांला लिहिता वाचता आले नाही तर हे शाळेच्या शिक्षकांचे अपयश मानले जाते. काही मुले शिक्षित असून सुद्धा अशिक्षित असतात कारण त्यांना लिहिता वाचता येत नाही हे अपयश त्याच्या एकटयाचे नसते तर शिक्षणयंत्रणेचे सुद्धा आहे.
या लाँकडाऊनच्या काळात सरकारने आँनलाईन शिक्षण घेणे असे जाहीर केले. पण त्यांनी हा विचार केला का ? किती शिक्षकांना डिजिटल शिक्षणाची माहिती आहे? त्यांना डिजिटल साधने उपलब्ध आहेत का? शिक्षण देताना मोबाईल डेटा संपणे,रेंज नसणे अशा समस्या शिक्षकांना निर्माण झाल्या असतील.या सर्वांच्या अनुंषगाने विचार करून सर्वप्रथम शिक्षकांना डिजिटल प्रशिक्षण देणे आवश्यक आहे,यासाठी सरकारने शहरीभागापुरता नाही तर ग्रामीण भागातील शिक्षकाचा विचार करणे आवश्यक आहे,कारण शहरी भागापेक्षा ग्रामीण भागातील शिक्षकांना अधिक समस्यांना तोंड दयावे लागते, कारण गावात १२ ते १४ तास लोडशेडिंगमुळे वीज नसते,मुलांची उपस्थिती कमी या सगळ्या परिस्थितीला सामोरे जावे लागते.
प्रत्येक वर्गशिक्षकांने आपल्या वर्गातील सर्व मुलांना लिहिता वाचता आले पाहिजे यासाठी प्रयत्न केले पाहिजे. मोबाईल आपल्या मुलांना सहज हाताळता येतो. पण त्याला लिहिता वाचता येत नाही. अशावेळी या मोबाईल दवारे त्यांच्यात ती आवड निर्माण करणे. विद्यार्थ्यांना डिजिटल माध्यमातून पुस्तके उपलब्ध करून देणे. जर एखादे मूल पुस्तक वाचण्यास कंटाळला करत असेल तर त्यात एखादे संगीतमय गाणे टाकणे. जेणेकरून तो आवडीने पुस्तक वाचेल.
शिक्षकांनी सुद्धा मन लावून विद्यार्थ्यांना डिजिटल माध्यमातून शिकवावे आणि आपला विद्यार्थी या डिजिटल शिक्षणाच्या माध्यमातून लिहिण्या-वाचण्यापासून वंचित राहणार नाही अशी प्रतिज्ञा घ्यावी. तेव्हाच आजच्या आँनलाईन शिक्षण पद्धतीत आपला विद्यार्थी खऱ्या अर्थाने शिक्षित होईल.

चला आपण सगळयांनी ‘वाचन प्रकल्प ‘ हा उपक्रम राबवूया आणि आपल्या विद्यार्थ्यांना एक सुजाण नागरिक तयार करु.

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7 months ago

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7 months ago

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7 months ago

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7 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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6 months ago

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